Traditionally, pro computers have relied primarily on the CPU for their computing power. But as GPU performance has dramatically increased, software developers have begun to leverage that power in their apps. With Mac Pro, we looked ahead and engineered an even more powerful GPU architecture. Not only does it feature an AMD FirePro workstation-class GPU — it features two of them. And each is available with up to 6GB of dedicated VRAM with up to 2048 stream processors. With all that power, you’ll be able to do things like seamlessly edit full-resolution 4K video while simultaneously rendering effects in the background — and still have enough power to connect up to three high-resolution 5K displays.
PCI Express–based SSD storage is fast — up to 2.4 times faster than the fastest SATA-based solid-state drive and up to 10 times faster than a 7200-rpm SATA hard drive. Most SSD storage systems connect via SATA buses designed for slower spinning hard drives. But we designed Mac Pro around PCIe-based SSD controller technology to deliver the fastest solid-state drives available standard in a desktop computer. So you’ll have up to 1TB of storage that will let you boot up, launch apps, and even open massive files in, well, a flash. Mac Pro packs an unprecedented amount of power in an unthinkable amount of space. A big reason we were able to do that is the ingenious unified thermal core.
Rather than using multiple heat sinks and fans to cool the processor and graphics cards, we built everything around a single piece of extruded aluminum designed to maximize airflow as well as thermal capacity. It works by conducting heat away from the CPU and GPUs and distributing that heat uniformly across the core. That way, if one processor isn’t working as hard as the others, the extra thermal capacity can be shared efficiently among them. No computer has been built this way before. And yet it makes so much sense, it’s now hard to imagine building one any other way. An incredible amount of innovation went into designing a fan system capable of cooling such a high-performance device. Instead of adding extra fans, we engineered a single, larger fan that pulls air upward through a bottom intake.
As air passes vertically through the center of the device, it absorbs heat and carries it out the top. It’s simple and elegant — and also astonishingly quiet. To achieve that, we had to consider every detail: the number of blades, the size of the blades, the spacing of the blades, and even the shape of the blades. By minimizing air resistance throughout the system, we were able to design a fan with backward-curved impeller blades that runs at fewer revolutions per minute, draws air more efficiently as it spins, and creates considerably less noise. Thunderbolt combines PCI Express and DisplayPort into one high-speed, versatile I/O technology. Thunderbolt 2 delivers twice the throughput of Thunderbolt, providing up to 20Gb/s of bandwidth to each external device.
So you can connect high-performance peripherals without being limited by the number of expansion slots inside your computer. You can connect massive amounts of storage, add a PCI expansion chassis, and work with the latest external displays — including 4K and 5K desktop displays and peripheral devices capable of broadcast monitoring 4K video.
And since each Thunderbolt 2 port allows you to daisy-chain up to six peripherals, you can go all out by plugging in up to 36 external devices via Thunderbolt 2 alone. Mac Pro equips you with all kinds of connections for all kinds of peripherals. USB 3 gives you the versatility to hook up dozens of different types of external devices.
Two Gigabit Ethernet ports let you connect to multiple networks. And an HDMI 1.4 port provides support for the latest televisions, projectors, and displays, including Ultra HD TVs. But the thought we put into expandability extends beyond the types of peripherals you can use. As you rotate Mac Pro to plug in a device, it senses the movement and automatically illuminates the I/O panel. So you can easily see the ports you need when you need them. Mac Pro looks unlike any other computer. Because it is unlike any other computer.
By rethinking the architecture of its internal components, we had the chance to rethink the entire enclosure. And since everything centers around a unified thermal core, we were free to design a much leaner, lighter, quieter, and far more streamlined structure. Its unique design and beautiful finishes are executed to an extraordinary degree of precision. And at just 9.9 inches tall with a diameter of just 6.6 inches, it’s a pro desktop computer that can actually sit on your desk.
. Written in, Website CUPS (formerly an for Common UNIX Printing System) is a modular system for computer which allows a computer to act as a. A computer running CUPS is a that can accept print jobs from computers, process them, and send them to the appropriate printer. CUPS consists of a and scheduler, a filter system that converts the print data to a format that the printer will understand, and a backend system that sends this data to the print device. CUPS uses the (IPP) as the basis for managing. It also provides the traditional for the and print systems, and provides support for the Berkeley print system's and limited support for the (SMB) protocol.
System administrators can configure the which CUPS supplies by editing text files in Adobe's (PPD) format. There are a number of user interfaces for different platforms that can configure CUPS, and it has a built-in web-based interface. CUPS is, provided under the. Contents. History , who owned, started developing CUPS in 1997 and the first public betas appeared in 1999. The original design of CUPS used the protocol, but due to limitations in LPD and vendor incompatibilities, the (IPP) was chosen instead. CUPS was quickly adopted as the default printing system for most.
In March 2002, adopted CUPS as the printing system for 10.2. In February 2007, hired chief developer Michael Sweet and purchased the CUPS source code. Overview. CUPS provides a mechanism that allows print jobs to be sent to printers in a standard fashion. The print-data goes to a scheduler which sends jobs to a filter system that converts the print job into a format the printer will understand. The filter system then passes the data on to a backend—a special filter that sends print data to a device or network connection.
The system makes extensive use of and of data to convert the data into a format suitable for the destination printer. CUPS offers a standard and modularised printing system that can process numerous data formats on the print server. Before CUPS, it was difficult to find a standard printer management system that would accommodate the very wide variety of printers on the market using their own printer languages and formats. For instance, the System V and Berkeley printing systems were largely incompatible with each other, and they required complicated scripts and workarounds to convert the program's data format to a printable format.
They often could not detect the file format that was being sent to the printer and thus could not automatically and correctly convert the data stream. Additionally, data conversion was performed on individual workstations rather than a central server. CUPS allows printer manufacturers and printer-driver developers to more easily create drivers that work natively on the print server. Processing occurs on the server, allowing for easier network-based printing than with other Unix printing systems.
With installed, users can address printers on remote Windows computers, and generic PostScript drivers can be used for printing across the network. Scheduler The CUPS scheduler implements (IPP) over HTTP/1.1.
A helper application (cups-lpd) converts (LPD) requests to IPP. The scheduler also provides a web-based interface for managing print jobs, the configuration of the server, and for documentation about CUPS itself. An authorization module controls which IPP and HTTP messages can pass through the system. Once the IPP/HTTP packets are authorized they are sent to the client module, which listens for and processes incoming connections.
The client module is also responsible for executing external programs as needed to support web-based printers, classes, and job status monitoring and administration. Once this module has processed its requests, it sends them to the IPP module which performs (URI) validation to prevent a client from sidestepping any or on the HTTP server. The URI is a text that indicates a name or address that can be used to refer to an abstract or physical resource on a network. The scheduler allows for classes of printers. Applications can send requests to groups of printers in a class, allowing the scheduler to direct the job to the first available printer in that class. A jobs module manages print jobs, sending them to the filter and backend processes for final conversion and printing, and monitoring the status messages from those processes. The CUPS scheduler utilizes a configuration module, which parses configuration files, initializes CUPS, and starts and stops the CUPS program.
The configuration module will stop CUPS services during configuration file processing and then restart the service when processing is complete. A logging module handles the logging of scheduler events for access, error, and page. The main module handles timeouts and dispatch of I/O requests for client connections, watching for, handling child process errors and exits, and reloading the server configuration files as needed. Other modules used by the scheduler include:. the MIME module, which handles a (MIME) type and conversion database used in the filtering process that converts print data to a format suitable for a print device;. a PPD module that handles a list of (PPD) files;.
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a devices module that manages a list of devices that are available in the system;. a printers module that handles printers and PPDs within CUPS.
Filter system. New CUPS web-based interface On all platforms, CUPS has a web-based administration interface that runs on. It particularly helps organisations that need to monitor print jobs and add print queues and printers remotely.
CUPS 1.0 provided a simple class, job, and printer-monitoring interface for web browsers. CUPS 1.1 replaced this interface with an enhanced administration interface that allows users to add, modify, delete, configure, and control classes, jobs, and printers. CUPS 1.2 and later provide a revamped web interface which features improved readability and design, support for automatically discovered printers, and a better access to system logs and advanced settings. KDEPrint The KDEPrint framework for contains various -tools that act as CUPS and allows the administration of classes, print queues and print jobs; it includes a printer wizard to assist with adding new printers amongst other features. KDEPrint first appeared in KDE 2.2.
KDEPrint supports several different printing platforms, with CUPS one of the best-supported. It replaced a previous version of printing support in KDE, qtcups and is backwards compatible with this module of KDE. As of 2009 kprinter, a program, serves as the main tool for sending jobs to the print device; it can also be started from the. KDEPrint includes a system to pre-filter any jobs before they are handed over to CUPS, or to handle jobs all on its own, such as converting files to. These filters are described by a pair of Desktop/ files. KDEPrint's main components include:.
a Print Dialog box, which allows printer properties to be modified. a Print Manager, which allows management of printers, such as adding and removing printers, through an Add Printer Wizard. a Job Viewer/Manager, which manages printer jobs, such as hold/release, cancel and move to another printer. a CUPS configuration module (integrated into KDE) Mac OS X In Mac OS X 10.5, printers are configured in the Print & Fax panel in, and in printer proxy applications which display the print queues and allow additional configuration after printers are set up. Earlier versions of Mac OS X also included a, which supplied configuration options missing from earlier versions of the Print & Fax preference pane.
PrinterSetup The PrinterSetup system can manage CUPS queues. It takes the approach of assigning a text file to describe each print queue. These 'PrinterSetupFiles' may then be added to other text files called 'PrinterSetupLists'.
This allows logical grouping of printers. As of 2009 the PrinterSetup project remains in its infancy. Red Hat Linux/Fedora. Fedora provides a print manager that can modify CUPS-based printers Starting with Red Hat Linux 9, Red Hat provided an integrated print manager based on CUPS and integrated into. This allowed adding printers via a user interface similar to the one uses, where a new printer could be added using an add new printer wizard, along with changing default printer-properties in a window containing a list of installed printers. Jobs could also be started and stopped using a print manager and the printer could be paused using a that pops up when the printer icon is right-clicked. Criticised this system in his piece The Luxury of Ignorance.
Raymond had attempted to install CUPS using the Fedora Core 1 print manager but found it non-intuitive; he criticised the interface designers for not designing with the user's point-of-view in mind. He found the idea of printer queues was not obvious because users create queues on their local computer but these queues are actually created on the CUPS server.
He also found the plethora of queue type options confusing as he could choose from between networked CUPS (IPP), networked Unix , networked Windows , networked Novell or networked. He found the help file singularly unhelpful and largely irrelevant to a user's needs. Raymond used CUPS as a general topic to show that user interface design on Linux desktops needs rethinking and more careful design.
He stated: The meta-problem here is that the configuration wizard does all the approved rituals (GUI with standardized clicky buttons, help popping up in a browser, etc. Etc.) but doesn't have the central attribute these are supposed to achieve: discoverability. That is, the quality that every point in the interface has prompts and actions attached to it from which you can learn what to do next. Does your project have this quality? ESP Print Pro , the original creators of CUPS, created a GUI, provided support for many printers and implemented a PostScript. ESP Print Pro ran on Windows, UNIX and Linux, but is no longer available and support for this product ended on December 31, 2007.
Name CUPS was initially called 'The Common UNIX Printing System'. This name was shortened to just 'CUPS' beginning with CUPS 1.4 due to legal concerns with the UNIX trademark. See also.
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